The test organism: Folsomia candida (springtail Collembola)

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The Folsomia candida species belongs to the subclass Collembola (Springtails).

Tiny (max. 3-4 mm) white animals with a furcula (tail-like appendage, that is folded beneath the body to be used for jumping. It is held under tension by a small structure called the retinaculum and when released, snaps against the substrate, flinging the springtail into the air. All of this takes place in as little as 18 milliseconds.). They live in the soil, in forests, there can be 100,000 Collembola in 1 m2 soil. They respirate with a ventral tube (collophore), that is why they are sensitive to soil vapours. Collembolas reproduce by epimorphosis. In case of suitable humidity environment of 20 °C the eggs hatch within 10–15 days and the animals mature within 10–15 days.

Source of description: 

K. Gruiz, B. Horváth, M. Molnár: Environmental toxicology, Műegyetemi Kiadó, 2001. (in Hungarian)


Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science (2013) Environmental Toxicology, Manual of the laboratory practices,